Surah 9:29 has been misunderstood and abused a lot by critics who have no knowledge why the verse was revealed. When was it revealed and for who? Historically speaking, we are certain with the evidences that this verse was revealed concerning the Tabuk expedition. We argued extensively in previous articles, which can be seen here, here and here, that the verse was revealed in relation to one group of people who were hell bent on destroying Islam and Muslims, 1400 years ago. The Byzantine’s intention were of mounting an attack on the Muslims.
This particular group as we showed, were preparing their troops to attack the Muslim community. Reports had reached Prophet Muhammed (p) that the army had reached southwards and were in Balqa. With this, the Prophet (p) and his companions (Sahaba) prepared to engage the enemy head on. The following new report illustrates the threat posed by the Byzantines, 1400 years ago:
“What was the genesis of this expedition? It is related that the Apostle got reports of Byzantine forces converging on the northern frontiers of Arabia with the intention of MOUNTING AN ATTACK ON THE MUSLIMS. … the Apostle was informed by the Nabataeans that Heraclius was, after stocking one year’s provisions for his army and drafting the pro-Byzantine tribes of the Lakhm, Judham, Amla and Ghassan under his banner, INTENDING TO COME UPON and that his advance columns had already reached Balqa.” (Al-Zurqani, commentary on Al-Mawahib, volume 3, page 63 – 64) 
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 Muhammad Rasulullah: The Apostle Of Mercy, [Translated by Mohiudin Ahmad, Academy of Islamic Research And Publications, Lucknow (India) – Series No. 126 – Edition English 2nd Lucknow, 1982]S. Abul Hasan Ali, page 349
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