Kaleef K. Karim
We are revisiting the treaty of Hudaybiyyah once again. It is claimed by some that part of the treaty agreement was the stipulation that women have to be returned to the Meccans. They say that women were part of the agreement when it was signed.
In the sixth year of Hijrah, a 10-year peace treaty was concluded at al-Hudaybiyyah, one article of which specified that any men emigrating to Prophet Muhammed’s camp without the permission of his guardian (or people) would have to be returned back to Makkah. Whereas any Muslim emigrating to Makkah would not be returned. This pact, however, was not regarded as covering the case of Muslim women. This verse of the Quran, Surah 60:10 was revealed on this occasion to reassure the Prophet (p) that women were not part of the agreement.
It is further asserted by some detractors that when the Quraysh came to Prophet Muhammed to return some women, Muhammed “refused” but he instead had ordered the Muslim women return the dowries that were given to them.
Now, the truth of matter is that the Quraysh men did not come. Only a few women came to argue the case that women were part of the treaty. However, the Prophet refused it on the ground that only men (Rajul) were part of the treaty. The Quraysh’s leaders did not object to Prophet Muhammed’s stance on this matter. We have already dedicated a thorough article on this claim, please see the following link: “Did The Treaty Of Hudaybiyyah Include Women?”
In this article, we aim to give further evidence which shows that part of the treaty agreement was only in regards to men. That the men only were to be returned to the Quraysh if they came to the Muslim camp.
Some reports in relation to this incident mention “Him”, “His”, “He”, this proves that conditions stipulated by the treaty was in regards to men as it has clear Arabic word(s) which are masculine pronouns.
Some critics unable to handle the fact that the treaty agreement was only in regards to men, they claim masculine pronouns used, refer to both genders collectively also. For this they present the following for their claims:
Surely the Safa and the Marwa are among the signs appointed by Allah; so WHOEVER makes a pilgrimage to the House or pays a visit (to it), there is no blame on HIM if HE goes round them both; and WHOEVER does good spontaneously, then surely Allah is Grateful, Knowing. S. 2:158 Shakir
who do not appeal to any other deity besides God [Alone]; nor kill any soul whom God has forbidden [them to] except through [due process of] law; nor misbehave sexually. Anyone who does so will incur a penalty. Torment will be doubled for HIM on Resurrection Day and HE will remain disgraced for ever in it, except for someone who repents and believes, and acts in a honorable manner. God will replace their evil deeds with fine ones, since God is Forgiving, Merciful. Anyone who repents and acts honorably should turn to God in repentance, and those who will not bear false witness, and when they pass by [people] gossiping, pass by in a dignified manner, who whenever they are reminded of their Lord’s signs, do not fall down deaf and blind [when reminded] of them; and [rather] who say: “Our Lord, bestow the comfort of our eyes on us in our spouses (min azwajina) and our offspring. Make us a model for those who do their duty.” Those will be rewarded with the Mansion because they have been so patient, and welcomed there with greetings as well as “Peace [be on you]!”, to live there for ever. How fine is such a residence and status! S. 25:68-76 T.B. Irving
As for HIM who giveth and is dutiful (toward Allah) And believeth in goodness; Surely We will ease HIS way unto the state of ease. But as for HIM who hoardeth and deemeth HIMSELF independent, And disbelieveth in goodness; Surely We will ease HIS way unto adversity. HIS riches will not save HIM when HE perisheth. Lo! Ours it is (to give) the guidance And lo! unto Us belong the latter portion and the former. Therefore have I warned you of the flaming Fire Which only the most wretched must endure, HE who denieth and turneth away. Far removed from it will be the RIGHTEOUS Who giveth HIS wealth that HE may grow (in goodness). And none hath with HIM any favour for reward, Except as seeking (to fulfill) the purpose of HIS Lord Most High. HE verily will be content. S. 92:5-21 Pickthall
The problem with the above verses and the reports is that both are using completely different words. The critic may have a point if the Arabic word Rajul was used, but nowhere in the above verses is the word used.
The reports are clear that the treaty agreement was in regards to men only (“He”, “Him”). Here is Sahih al-Bukhari (Bewley Translation):
“3945. Part of what ‘Urwa reported from Marwan ibn al-Hakam and al-Miswar ibn Makhrama, reporting about what happened with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the ‘umra of al-Hudaybiyya, “When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wrote out the truce treaty with Suhayl ibn ‘Amr on the Day of al-Hudaybiya, one of the preconditions of that Suhayl ibn ‘Amr made was: ‘IF ANY OF US (MEN) comes to you, even if HE has your religion, you will return HIM TO US and you will not come between US AND HIM.’ Suhayl refused to conclude the truce with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, except on that basis. The believers disliked that and were grieved by it and spoke against it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, signed it and then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned Abu Jandal ibn Suhayl on that very day to his father, Suhayl ibn ‘Amr, When any man came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he returned him in that period, even if he was a Muslim. Believing emigrant women came. and Umm Kulthum bint ‘Uqba ibn Abi Mu’ayt was one of those who went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. She was a young woman. Her family came to ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to return her when Allah Almighty revealed what He revealed about believing women.” [i.e. 60:12] (The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari, Chapter 67. Book of Expeditions – XXXIII: The expedition of al-Hudaybiyya, (Bewley Translation), online source http://bewley.virtualave.net/bukhari29.html#maghazi)
The above reported is also translated by Dr. M. Muhsin Khan.
The Arabic text for the above reports mention the word Rajul fourteen times. “He”, “him”, here the Arabic word used is Rajul. This word according to Arabic-English dictionaries means a “man”:
“رجل rajul pl. … rijal MAN; pl. … rijalat great, important MEN, leading personalities, MEN of distinction | … r. ad-daula statesmen; …
rijali men’s, for men (e. g., apparel) …” (Hans Wehr A Dictionary of Modern written Arabic [Edited by John Milton – Spoken Language Services, Inc. 1976], page 329)
Edward Lane’s Lexicon:
(TA. [See …]) He became a رجل or MAN; he rose to MANHOOD. )See an explanation of …, in what follows.). (Edward Lane’s Lexicon, page 1049, online source)
Professor Francis Joseph Steingass:
“…rajul, pl. rijal, rijalat, rijla-t, rajla-t rijala-t, arijil, marjal, MAN; powerful MAN, MAN of great physical strength ; common MAN (opposed to a leader, &c.) …” (English-Arabic Dictionary: For the Use of Both Travellers and Students [LONDON – Crosby Lockwood And Son 7, Stationers Hall Court, Ludgate Hill, E.C.] by Professor Francis Joseph Steingass, page 405)
Arabic-English Dictionary Of Qur’anic Usage:
“… r-j-l a MAN, MANHOOD, masculinity, a foot, a leg, …”
Arabic-English Dictionary Of Qur’anic Usage [Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2008] by Elsaid M. Badawi, Muhammad Abdel Haleem, page 350)
Dictionary And Glossary Of The Kor-an – John Penrice:
“…رجل A MAN,…” (Dictionary And Glossary Of The Kor-an, With Copious Grammatical References And Explanations Of The Text [Adam Publishers & Distributors, Shandar Market Chitli Qabar Delhi-110006., Printed in India, 1991] by John Penrice, B. A., page 56)
Dictionary Of The Holy Qur’an of With References and Explanation of the Text – Malik Ghulam Farid:
“… رجل means also a MAN perfect or complete in respect of bodily vigour. … He is a man among Men, i.e., very strong, perfect or vigorous man. …” (Dictionary Of The Holy Qur’an of With References and Explanation of the Text by Malik Ghulam Farid M. A., page 315 – 316)
A Dictionary Of Egyptian Arabic:
“… raagil/n pl riggaala, rigaal la MAN, ADULT MALE, raagil kibiir, an old MAN. || raagil il beet the master of the house. 1b one distinguished…” (A Dictionary Of Egyptian Arabic – Arabic English [Librairie du Liban, Riad Solh Sqaure, Beirut., 1986] by Martin Hinds & El-Said Badawi, page 327)
Dictionary Of The Holy Qur’an:
“… Rajulun … MALE human being; MAN; … Rajulun … MAN. Rajulan … /rajulain … (n. dual.) TWO MEN. Rijal … (n. plu.): MEN…” (Dictionary Of The Holy Qur’an – Arabic Words – English Meanings (With Notes) – (Classical Arabic Dictionaries Combined) [NOOR Foundation – International Inc., 2010] by Abdul Mannan Omar (Translator) – Subject Codifier Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Muhammad bin Hanbal, page 203 – 204)
The Easy Dictionary of the Qur’an:
“4036 a right minded MAN … رجل” (The Easy Dictionary of the Qur’an (Compiled in the order of recitation) Compiled [Translated By(Late) AbdurRasheed Kamptee, Dr. Abdulazeez Abdulraheem & Shaikh AbdulGhafoor Parekh – Third Revised English Edition., 2000] by Shaikh AbdulKarim Parekh, page 164)
Bewley and Dr. Muhsin Khan’s translation report shown earlier with the word “he”, “him” in there, is translated elsewhere by non-Muslim academics. For example, in Mishkat Al-Masabih – translated by James Robson, D. Litt., D.D. (Emeritus Professor Of Arabic, The University of Manchester) the word “rajul” is translated as “man”:
“… Meanwhile Budail b. Warqa al-Khuza’I came with some members of Khuza’I and Urwa b. Mas’ud joined him. He went on with the tradition to the point where he said that when Suhail b. Amr came the Prophet said, ‘Write: This is what Muhammad God’s messenger has decided.’ Suhail protested, ‘I swear by God that if we knew you were God’s messenger we would not turn you away from the House or fight with you; but write: Muhammad b. Abdallah.’ The Prophet replied, ‘I swear by God that I am God’s messenger even if you disbelieve me; write Muhammad b. Abdallah.’ Suhail said, ‘And that a MAN will not come to you from us, even if he follows your religion, without your sending him back to us.’ Then when he finished drawing up the document God’s messenger said to his companions, ‘Get up and sacrifice, and shave.’“ (Mishkat Al-Masabih – English Translation With Explanatory Notes [Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, Publishers, Lahore, Pakistan., 1991] by James Robson, D. Litt., D.D. (Emeritus Professor Of Arabic, The University of Manchester), volume II (Vol. 2), page 861 – 862 (Chapter X – Peace.))
This is also the case in the report in “Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya” – translated by Professor Trevor Le Gassick:
“Al-Zuhri states, ‘This relates to his having said, ‘I’ll accept any request they make of me by which the sanctuaries of God are dignified.’
‘The Prophet (SAAS) then said, ‘on condition that you allow us access to the Ka’ba so that we may circumambulate it.’
‘Suhayl objected, ‘By God, we’ll not have the Arabs say that we accepted pressure; however, that can happen next year.’
‘So he wrote it. Suhayl then said, ‘A condition is that any of OUR MEN who come over to you, even if in your religion, you will return to us.’
‘The Muslims said, ‘Goodness gracious, how could someone be returned to the polytheists if he came as a Muslim!’
‘While this discussion was in progress Abu Jandal b. Suhayl b. Amr came along, dragging his chains, having escaped from below Mecca, and threw himself down among the Muslims.
‘Suhayl said, ‘This fellow, Muhammad, is the first whom I charge you to return to me.’ The Prophet (SAAS) said, ‘But we’ve not completed the agreement yet.’ In that case, Suhayl insisted, I’ll never make a pact with you over anything.’ The Prophet (SAAS) then said, ‘Release him to my custody.’ I’ll not release him to you,’ Suhayl said. ‘I insist that you release him!’ That I’ll not do,’ he replied. Mikraz then said, ‘Very well, we’ll release him to you.’” (The Life of the Prophet Muhammed (‘Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya’) [Translated by Professor Trevor Le Gassick, Garnet Publishing – Copyright 2000, The Center for Muslim Contribution To civilization], by Ibn Kathir, volume 3, page 238 – 239)
Kitab al-Maghazi by Ma’mar Ibn Rashid [Translated by Professor Sean W. Anthony]:
“… And that was due to the Prophet’s declaration, ‘I will grant them any course of action that magnifies the sanctity of God.’
The Prophet said, ‘Let it be stipulated that you grant us access to the Sacred House, so that we may circumambulate it.’
‘We can’t have the Arabs saying that we gave in under pressure; rather, that pilgrimage can wait until next year,’ replied Suhayl. So it was written. Then Suhayl continued, ‘And let it be stipulated that none of our MEN may come to you, even if they have accepted your religion, without you returning them to us.’
‘Glory be to God!’ said the Muslims…” (The Expeditions (“Kitab al-Maghazi”)- An Early Biography Of Muhammad by Ma’mar Ibn Rashid – According to the recension of Abd al-Razzaq al-San’ani [Edited and translated by Sean W. Anthony – Foreword by M. A. S. Abdel Haleem., NEW YORK University Press., 2014], page 35 – 36)
“The Prophet said, ‘I am the Messenger of Allah even though you do not believe me. Write, ‘Muhammad ibn Abdullah.’
He asked Ali to erase what he had written but Ali said, ‘By Allah no, I will not erase it.’
The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Show me the place,’ and he erased it himself. Then he said, ‘This is what the Messenger of Allah agrees provided that you give us leave to perform tawaf of the Ka’bah.’
Suhayk said, ‘By Allah, we will not allow the Arabs to say that we submitted to pressure. It will have to be next year.’ It was also written: ‘On the condition that if any of OUR MEN, even if he has your religion, comes to you, you will return him to us.’ …” (Muhammad The Last Prophet – A Model For All Time [UK Islamic Academy, 1995] by Sayyed Abul Hassan Ali Nadwi, page 118)
With the above evidences shown, we see that it was stipulated that if any men came over to the Quraysh they would not be sent back. With the above in perspective, now we will leave readers with scholars commenting on this incident.
Shaykh Allama Shibli Nu’mani (1857 – 1914 CE):
“The condition that those who fled from Mecca would be returned, related only to men, not to women. Concerning women the following verse was revealed:
‘O you who believe, when believing women come unto you as emigrants, examine them. Allah is the best Knower of their faith. Then if ye know them to be true believers, send them not back unto the infidels, they are not lawful unto them, nor are they lawful unto them. And give them that which they expanded. Nor is it any crime in you if you marry them, when ye have given them their hires. And hold not to the ties of the infidel women, and ask back that which ye have expanded, and let them ask back that which they have expanded. That is the judgment of Allah, He judgeth between you. And Allah is Knowing, Wise.’ (60:10)
The helpless among the Muslims, left at Mecca would often flee to Medina to escape the tortures inflicted by the infidels. The first to flee was Utba Ibn Ubaid (Abu Basir). The Quraish deputed two men to fetch him back. They came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and asked him to return their man. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) advised Utba to go back. …” (Sirat-Un-Nabi (The Life Of The Prophet) [Rendered into English by M. Tayyib Bakhsh Budayuni, Idarah-I Adabiyat-I Delli, 2009 Qasimjan St. Delhi (India)] by Shaykh Allama Shibli Nu’mani, volume 2 (vol. II), page 145 – 146)
Shaykh Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri:
“The issue of Muhajir women
Shortly after the Treaty of Hudaybia, some Muslim women came to the Prophet seeking asylum, while the pagans demanded their return. The Prophet rejected the pagans demand, saying that the TREATY HAD NOTHING WITH THE WOMEN. …” (When The Moon Split (A Biography Of Prophet Muhammad) [Edited and Translated by Tabassum Siraj, Michael Richardson, Badr Asimabadi, Darussalam – Publishers & Distributors, Riyadh], Compiled by Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri, page 215)
Scholar Martin Lings (Abu Bakr Siraj ad-Din):
“But the cut festered, and the wound proved to be mortal. He was able, none the less, before he died, to write a letter to his brother Khalid urging him to enter Islam. Only one Muslim woman escaped from Mecca at this time and took refuge in Medina, and that was Uthman’s half-sister, Umm Kulthum, the daughter of his mother Arwa and of Uqbah, who had been put to death on the way from Badr. But a Revelation now came forbidding the return of any believing women to the disbelievers. So when Umm Kulthum’s two full brothers came to take her back, the Prophet refused to let them have her, and QURAYSH ACCEPTED HIS REFUSAL WITHOUT PROTEST. THERE HAD BEEN NO MENTION OF WOMEN IN THE TREATY. Then Zayd and Zubayr and Abd ar-Rahman ibn Awf asked for her hand in marriage, and the Prophet advised her to marry Zayd, which she did.” (Muhammad – His Life Based On The Earliest Sources by Martin Lings, page 258 – 259)
Maulana Wahiduddin Khan:
“It is perhaps easier to arrive at the truth by examining the wording of this particular condition of the pact. Here we quote Bukhari’s version, which may be taken as the most authentic: ‘You will have to return any of our men who come to you, even if they have accepted your faith.’ The expression ‘any of our men’ (rajul) obviously gave Muslims a loophole by which to exclude women from the application of this condition. This condition of the pact had not been put forward by them, but by the Meccans, and the actual wording had been dictated by the delegates of the Quraysh.
It seems that when one of them, called Suhayl ibn Amr, was dictating, he was thinking of both men and women, but that the actual word he chose in order to convey ‘any person’ (inclusive of both men and women) was rajul, which in Arabic is actualy used only for men. Most probably this was why the Prophet could legitimately refuse – according to Imam Zuhri – to hand over Umm Kulthum bint Uqbah to her brothers when they came to him to demand her return.
Razi is another annalist who records the Prophet on this occasion as having explained that “the condition applied to men and NOT to women.” 97 (97. Ibn Hajar al-Athqalani, Fath al-Bari, volume 9, page 345) Thus God, by means of a single word, saved virtuous Muslim women from the humiliation of being returned to their oppressors.” (Woman In Islamic Shari’ah [Goodword Books, 2002] by Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, page 102 – 103)
Moulavi Cheragh Ali:
“Females and the Treaty of Hodeibia.
Females were not included in the truce of Hodeibia. The stipulation for the surrender of deserters referred only to the male sex. All women who were to come over to Medina from Mecca during the period of the peace were, by the dictates of Sura LX, 10, to be tried, and if their profession was found sincere, they were to be retained. They were prohibited from marrying the unbelievers. The guardians of such believing females were to receive from the Moslem commonwealth what they had spent upon their charges. …” (A Critical Exposition Of The Popular “Jihad” – Showing That All The Wars Of Mohammad Were Defensive; And That Aggressive War, Or Compulsory Conversion, Is Not Allowed In The Koran. With Appendices – Proving That The Word ‘Jihad’ Does Not Exegetically Mean ‘Warefare,’ And That Slavery Is Not Sanctioned By The Prophet Of Islam [Calcutta: Thacker, Spink And Co., 1885] by Moulavi Cheragh Ali, page 110)
Sayyid Ala Maududi:
“but the reporters have reported its purport in their own words. But since most of the traditions arc of the same nature, the commentators and traditionists generally have understood that the treaty was general, which applied to both men and women, and the women too were to be returned according to it. Later, when this injunction of the Qur’an that the believing women were not to be returned, came to their knowledge, they interpreted it to mean that Allah in this verse had decided to break the treaty in so far as it related to the believing women But this was not an ordinary thing which should be accepted so easily. If the treaty was general, without any exception in respect of men and women, it could not be lawful for one party to amend it unilaterally and change a part of it by itself. And even if such a thing happened, it is strange that the Quraish did not protest against it, whereas they remained on the lookout for an opportunity to raise objections against everything that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah’s peace) and the Muslims did. Had they found that the Holy Prophet had committed a breach of the treaty conditions, they would have raised a loud clamor. But we do not find any trace of it in any tradition that they took an exception to this ruling of the Qur’an. Had this question been carefully considered the problem could have been resolved by reference to the actual words of the treaty. But many people paid no attention they it; if some scholars (e.g Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al-‘Arabi) did pay any attention, they did not hesitate to say that the reason why the Quraish did not raise any objection was that Allah had miraculously scaled their mouths in this matter. It is strange how these scholars felt satisfied at this explanation.
The fact of the matter is that this condition of the peace treaty had been proposed by the disbelieving Quraish, and not by the Muslims, and the words that Suhail bin ‘Amr, their representative, had-got included in the treaty were: “AND THAT WHICHEVER MAN (RAJUL) come to you from us, even if HE be on your religion, you will return him to us.” These words of the treaty have been reproduced in Bukhari (Kitab ash-Shurut: Bab ash-Shurut fil-Jihad wal-Masalahah) through authentic channels. It may be that Suhail used the word rajul in the meaning of a person, but this might be the meaning he had in his mind. The word written in the treaty was RAJUL, WHICH IS USED FOR A FULL-GROWN MAN IN ARABIC. That is why when the brothers of Umm Kulthum bint ‘Uqbah came to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah’s peace) and demanded her return, (according to Imam Zuhri’s tradition) the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah’s peace) refused return her, saying: “The condition was about the men, not the women. ” (Ibn al- Arabi, Ahkam al-Qur an; Loam Razi, Tafsir Kabir) Until then the people of Quraish themselves were under the delusion that the treaty applied to all kinds of emigrants, men or women; But when the Holy Prophet drew their attention to these words of the treaty, they were struck dumb and had to accept this decision.
According to this condition of the treaty the Muslims had the right to decline return of any woman who emigrated from Makkah to Madinah, for any reason whatever. But Islam was interested only in safeguarding the believing omen and not to make the holy city of Madinah a place of refuge for every kind of female fugitive. Therefore, Allah enjoined: “Ascertain by examination the faith of the women who emigrated to you and profess to have believed; and when it is fully ascertained that they have emigrated with genuine faith, and no other motive, do not return them.” Thus, the procedure adopted for carrying out this Command was was that the women who emigrated were questioned whether they believed in the oneness of Allah and the Prophethood of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace) and had emigrated only for the sake of Allah and His Messenger, and not out of any worldly consideration, e.g. hatred of the husband, or love of somebody in Madinah, or some other worldly motive. Only those women who gave satisfactory answers to these questions were detained, others were sent back. (Ibn Jarir on the authority of Iba `Abbas, Qatadah, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ibn Zaid).
In this verse a basic principle of the Law of Evidence also bas been stated and its further clarification has been made by the procedure that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah’s peace) had prescribed for implementing it, The verse enjoins three things:
(1) Examine the faith of the emigrating women who present themselves as believers;
(2) Allah alone knows the truth about their faith; the Muslims have no means to find out whether they have really believed or not; and
(3) when it has been ascertained that they are believers, they are not to be returned.
Then, in accordance with this injunction, the method that the Holy Prophet prescribed for examining and ascertaining the faith of the women was that the statement given by them on oath should be relied on and it should be made sure after necessary examination that they had no other motive of emigration than the Faith. First, it gives the principle that for taking decision on different matters it is not necessary for the court to have direct knowledge of the truth; for the court only that knowledge is sufficient which is obtained through evidence. Second, the statement given by a person on oath will be regarded as reliable until it is proved to be false by a clear evidence. Third, whatever declaration a person himself may make about his creed and faith, will be accepted and no search will be made into finding out, whether what he states actually constitutes his faith or not, unless there is a clear indication to the contrary. And fourth, in the personal affairs of a person, which no one else can know, his own statement will be trusted. e.g. in the matters of divorce and the waiting period (iddat) the woman’s own statement about her menstrual course and state of purity will be regarded as reliable, whether it is true or false. According to these very rules, in the science of the Hadith also, those traditions will be accepted, the apparent state of whose reporters testifies to their being righteous, unless, of course, there are other circumstances which forbid the acceptance of a particular tradition.” (Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi – Tafhim al-Qur’an – The Meaning of the Qur’an – online source http://englishtafsir.com/Quran/60/index.html#sdfootnote14sym )
Conclusion, there is no doubt with the abundant evidence presented that the part of the treaty was only in regards to men.
(1) – “A Historical Examination Of The Sword Verse – Surah 9:5”
(2) – “Early Expeditions And Battles Of Islam”
(3) – “Most Misinterpreted Verses Of The Quran?”
(4) – “The Hadith ‘…Fight Until They Say There Is No god But Allah’ Explained”
(5) – “Revisiting ‘I Have Been Commanded To Fight…’ Hadith”
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 Kitab Futuh al-Buldan:
The cause of its invasion. When the Prophet made arrangements with the Kuraish in the year of al-Hudaibiyah and wrote down the statement of the truce to the effect that he who desires to make a covenant with Muhammad can do so, and he who desires to make a covenant with Kuraish can do so; and that HE of the Companions of the Prophet comes to Kuraish should not be returned, and HE of the banu-Kuraish or their allies who comes to the Prophet be returned, then those of Kinanah who were present rose and said, ‘We will enter into a covenant with Kuraish, and accept their terms’; but Khuza’ah said, ‘We will enter into the covenant of Muhammad and his contract.’ …” (The origins of the Islamic State, being a translation from the Arabic accompanied with annotations Geographic and historic notes of the Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan of al-Imam Abu’l Abbas Ahmad Ibn Jabir Al Baladhuri, [Translated by Phillip Khurti Hitti, PHD – NEW YORK: Columbia University, Longmans, Green & Co., Agents – London: P. S. King & Son. Ltd., 1916], volume 1, page 60)