2 Samuel 13:14 And Deuteronomy 21:14

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We continue to seek and analyse Deuteronomy 21:14, to see what the true historical reading for it was.

This is the 6th piece on the Hebrew word ‘anah’ (inna). We looked in the previous articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), that Deuteronomy 21:14 showed that the slave-women mentioned were forced into marriage, and raped:

Deuteronomy 21:10-14 Good News Translation (GNT)
“10 When the Lord your God gives you victory in battle and you take prisoners, 11 you may see among them a beautiful woman that you like and want to marry. 12 TAKE HER to your home, where she will shave her head, cut her fingernails, 13 and change her clothes. She is to stay in your home and mourn for her parents for a month; after that, you may marry her. 14 Later, if you no longer want her, you are to let her go free. Since you FORCED HER TO HAVE INTERCOURSE (ANAH) WITH YOU, you cannot treat her as a slave and sell her.”

The crucial Hebrew word we looked at was ‘anah’ (inna). In this article, we get to look at 2 Samuel 13:14. The Hebrew word ‘anah’ is mentioned here along ‘shakab’. Both words carry the meaning of ‘rape’ and forced sex. Biblical scholars have translated the first word ‘anah’, as ‘forced her’ and ‘Hebrew word ‘shakab’ as ‘rape’.

The context for 2 Samuel 13:14 goes like this (starting from verse 10-14):

New King James Version (NKJV)
“10 Then Amnon said to Tamar, “Bring the food into the bedroom, that I may eat from your hand.” And Tamar took the cakes which she had made, and brought them to Amnon her brother in the bedroom. 11 Now when she had brought them to him to eat, he took hold of her and said to her, “Come, lie with me, my sister.”
12 But she answered him, “No, my brother, do not force me, for no such thing should be done in Israel. Do not do this disgraceful thing!
13 And I, where could I take my shame? And as for you, you would be like one of the fools in Israel. Now therefore, please speak to the king; for he will not withhold me from you.”
14 However, he would not heed her voice; and being stronger than she, he forced her and lay with her.” – 2 Samuel 13:10-14

Apparently from the above verses, Amnon the brother asked his sister, Tamar, to bring food to his bedroom, so that he ‘may’ eat from her hand. As a sister, she took some ‘cake’ and brought it to Amnon. As she came in the bedroom, Amnon got hold of her sister and told her, let’s go to bed. Tamar refused and said ‘do not force me’, for such is forbidden and is a disgraceful thing to do. Amnon did not listen and forced Tamar down and raped her.

I may add, I don’t know what the benefit of such story is being included in the ‘Book of God’, the Bible. I am sure no parent would read such story to her kids? Would any pastor read such a story to his congregation in church?

This is why I and other Muslims (including non-Muslim scholars) have said that the Bible has been tampered with. There are things in there that no person who thinks rationally would attribute to God Almighty.

Coming back to the main point of this article: we will show from the following translations that word ‘anah’ (inna) carries the meaning of ‘forced sex’ i.e., rape. Before reading the translations, please check the follow link – word for word English and Hebrew text for 2 Samuel 13:14, where the word ‘anah’ (inna) is used: BlueletterBible.org

Translations for 2 Samuel 13:14

Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)
“14 However, he wouldn’t listen to her; and since he was stronger than she, he OVERPOWERED HER AND RAPED HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Expanded Bible (EXB)
“14 But Amnon refused to listen to her. He was stronger than she was, so he FORCED HER TO HAVE SEXUAL RELATIONS WITH HIM [RAPED/L humiliated her and lay with her].” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Good News Translation (GNT)
“14 But he would not listen to her; and since he was stronger than she was, he OVERPOWERED HER AND RAPED HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Easy-to-Read Version (ERV)
“14 But Amnon refused to listen to Tamar. He was stronger than she was, so he FORCED HER TO HAVE SEXUAL RELATIONS WITH HIM.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

21st Century King James Version (KJ21)
“14 Nevertheless he would not hearken unto her voice; but, being stronger than she, FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)
“14 But he would not listen to her; he was too strong for her: he FORCED HER DOWN AND RAPED HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

American Standard Version (ASV)
“14 Howbeit he would not hearken unto her voice; but being stronger than she, he FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Amplified Bible, Classic Edition (AMPC)
“14 But he would not listen to her, and being stronger than she, he FORCED HER AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

International Standard Version (ISV)
“14 But he was unwilling to listen to what she was saying. Since he was stronger than she was, HE FORCED HER INTO HAVING SEX WITH HIM.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

BRG Bible (BRG)
“14 Howbeit he would not hearken unto her voice: but, being stronger than she, FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

New Century Version (NCV)
“14 But Amnon refused to listen to her. He was stronger than she was, so he FORCED HER TO HAVE SEXUAL RELATIONS WITH HIM.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

New King James Version (NKJV)
“14 However, he would not heed her voice; and being stronger than she, HE FORCED HER AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)
“14 But he would not listen to her; and being stronger than she, he FORCED HER AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

New Revised Standard Version, Anglicised (NRSVA)
“14 But he would not listen to her; and being stronger than she was, HE FORCED HER AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

New Revised Standard Version, Anglicised Catholic Edition (NRSVACE)
“14 But he would not listen to her; and being stronger than she was, HE FORCED HER AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

New Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition (NRSVCE)
“14 But he would not listen to her; and being stronger than she, he FORCED HER AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Jubilee Bible 2000 (JUB)
“14 Howbeit, he would not hearken unto her voice, but, being stronger than she, FORCED HER AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Revised Standard Version (RSV)
“14 But he would not listen to her; and being stronger than she, he FORCED HER, and LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition (RSVCE)
“14 But he would not listen to her; and being stronger than she, he FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Tree of Life Version (TLV)
“14 But he was unwilling to listen to her voice, so he overpowered her, FORCED HER AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

World English Bible (WEB)
“14 However he would not listen to her voice; but being stronger than she, he FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

King James Version (KJV)
“14 Howbeit he would not hearken unto her voice: but, being stronger than she, FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
“14 Howbeit he would not hearken unto her voice: but, being stronger than she, FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Lexham English Bible (LEB)
“14 But he was not willing to listen to her voice. He was stronger than she, and HE FORCED HER AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Modern English Version (MEV)
“14 But he refused to listen to her. So, being stronger than her, he OVERPOWERED HER AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

1599 Geneva Bible (GNV)
“14 Howbeit he would not hearken unto her voice, but being stronger than she, FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
“14 But he refused to listen to her, and because he was stronger than she was, he RAPED HER.” – 2 Samuel 13:14

Let’s now read the exegesis for the above verse under discussion.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable:

“The dialogue in the story of Amnon and Tamar … looks like a conscious allusion to the technique used in the episode of Joseph and Potiphar”s wife. Amnon addresses to his half-sister exactly the same words with which Potiphar”s wife accosts Joseph-[“Come to bed with me!” (Genesis 39:7)]-adding to them only one word, the thematically loaded “sister” (2 Samuel 13:11). She responds with an elaborate protestation, like Joseph before her.” [Note: Alter, p73.] David had violated God”s will by “sleeping” (Heb. skb “m) with Bathsheba, evidently with her consent. Amnon, however, violated God”s will by “laying” (Heb. skb “t) Tamar, FORCING HER AGAINST HER WILL (2 Samuel 13:14; cf. 2 Samuel 11:4). [Note: David M. Gunn, The Story of King David: Genre and Interpretation, p100.] Jonadab may have been trying to secure his own political future with Absalom (2 Samuel 13:3-5; 2 Samuel 13:32-35). [Note: Andrew E. Hill, “A Jonadab Connection in the Absalom Conspiracy?” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society30:4 (December1987):387-90.] Quite clearly Amnon”s attraction to Tamar was only selfish infatuation. When he had satisfied himself, he hated her and wanted no more contact with her (2 Samuel 13:15). Contrast Amnon”s attitude toward TAMAR AFTER THE RAPE with that of pagan Shechem toward Dinah in a similar incident ( Genesis 34:2-3). Amnon hated Tamar, but Shechem loved Dinah. Likewise, David continued to love Bathsheba after their affair. (Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable – 2 Samuel 13:14 – online source)

 

L. M. Grant’s Commentary on the Bible:

“…Ammon having been guilty of the cruel rape of Tamar, his professed love for her was proven utterly false, for he turned against her with vicious hatred. This is what will often occur when one is led by infatuation. He knew he had done evil, and the one he had wronged is the one who becomes the object of his worst hatred. From then on, every time he saw her, his conscience would burn. For this reason he wanted her out of his sight, just as some men are hateful enough to murder a woman after they have RAPED HER. (L. M. Grant’s Commentary on the Bible – 2 Samuel 13:14 – online source)

 

David Guzik Commentary on the Bible:

“4. (11-14) Amnon rapes Tamar.
Now when she had brought them to him to eat, he took hold of her and said to her, “Come, lie with me, my sister.” And she answered him, “No, my brother, do not force me, for no such thing should be done in Israel. Do not do this disgraceful thing! And I, where could I take my shame? And as for you, you would be like one of the fools in Israel. Now therefore, please speak to the king; for he will not withhold me from you.” However, he would not heed her voice; and being stronger than she, he forced her and lay with her.
a. Come, lie with me, my sister: Amnon’s evil naturally revealed itself. Here he admitted his incestuous desire as he made the wicked suggestion to Tamar. Amnon seems to be a spoiled prince who always took what he wanted.
b. Do not do this disgraceful thing! Tamar easily saw how evil and disgraceful this was. Amnon could not see what was so plainly evident because he was blinded by lust.
c. Where could I take my shame? And as for you, you would be like one of the fools in Israel: Tamar wisely asked Amnon to consider the result of his desire, both for her and for him. It would shame Tamar and reveal Amnon as one of the fools. Blinded by lust, Amnon would not see the inevitable result of his desire.
i. “There is something exceedingly tender and persuasive in this speech of Tamar; but Amnon was a mere brute, and it was all lost on him.” (Clarke)
d. Please speak to the king; for he will not withhold me from you: The Law of Moses commanded against any marriage between a half-brother and half-sister (Leviticus 18:11). Tamar probably said this simply as a ploy to get away from Amnon.
e. HE FORCED HER AND LAY WITH HER: THIS WAS NOTHING BUT RAPE. Tamar did whatever she could to avoid this and all the blame clearly rests on Amnon.” (David Guzik Commentary on the Bible – 2 Samuel 13:14 – online source)

 

The Popular Commentary by Paul E. Kretzmann:

“v. 14. Howbeit, he would not hearken unto her voice; but, being stronger than she, FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER, gratified his passionate lust. Such is the power of sin if it is not kept in check by the fear of God or by love toward the Lord. (The Popular Commentary by Paul E. Kretzmann – 2 Samuel 13:14 – online source)

 

Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament:

“Amnon would not listen to her, however, but overpowered her, FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER. (Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament – 2 Samuel 13:14 – online source)

 

Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible:

“So she pleaded with him, and begged him not to RAPE HER, pointing out that it was not the kind of thing that was acceptable in Israel, especially as she was his half-sister. It was contrary to God’s Law. She asked him not to behave so foolishly, and to consider how as a result of any such action she would be shamed in the sight of all, so much so that she would have nowhere to hide. She would no longer be a chaste virgin. And as for him he would be seen as ‘one of the fools in Israel’. The implication behind the word ‘fool’ was that he would be seen as godless and rebellious against YHWH (Psalms 14:1).
Thus she begged him to ask the king for her hand in marriage, assuring him that she was sure that the king, who doted on his sons, would not withhold her from him. She may well not have known about ‘the forbidden degrees’ (Leviticus 20:17), for parents arranged marriages, and she had led a sheltered life, or alternatively she may simply have been devising any means of getting way from him with her virginity intact. She was in fact saying to him, ‘let the king decide what we should do’. It was basically an appeal to the king that Amnon should have listened to.
2 Samuel 13:14
‘However he would not listen to her voice, but being stronger than she, he forced her, and lay with her.’
But Amnon was not listening. He was too possessed with lust to take notice of anything reasonable. Poor Tamar had never seen her brother like this before, as, mad with lust, he refused to listen to her pleas and VIOLENTLY RAPED HER where she was. It was an act of total callousness and depravity, which nevertheless aped the behaviour of his father.” (Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible – 2 Samuel 13:14 – online source)

 

Chuck Smith Bible Commentary:

“Now it wasn”t Tamar”s fault at all. SHE WAS RAPED! Amnon was totally at fault in this thing. But the tragedy of the whole story is this, David because of what he had done, couldn”t discipline Amnon for it. He didn”t say a thing to Amnon. There was no disciplining. There was no rebuking. David was a lousy father, totally derelict in discipline. He suffered the result of it in his children.” (Chuck Smith Bible Commentary – 2 Samuel 13:14 – online source)

 

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge:

“Verse 14
Howbeit he would not hearken unto her voice: but, being stronger than she, FORCED HER, AND LAY WITH HER.
FORCED HER
12:11; DEUTERONOMY 22:25-27; JUDGES 20:5; Esther 7:8” (Treasury of Scripture Knowledge by R. A. Torrey – 2 Samuel 13:14 – online source)

 

Arthur Peake’s Commentary on the Bible:

“2 Samuel 13:1-22. Amnon, David’s eldest son, forces his half-sister, Tamar, the full sister of Absalom. He might have married her (2 Samuel 3:5*) but did not choose to do so. She rent her royal tunic, probably a garment reaching to the hands and feet (cf. Genesis 37:3*); Joseph’s “coat of many colours” represents the same Heb. word. David was angry, but he did not vex him by punishing him, for he loved him because he was his first-born (so LXX).” (Arthur Peake’s Commentary on the Bible – 2 Samuel 13:14 – online source)

 

Conclusion:

Reading the translations and the commentaries, we get a picture that the Hebrew word ‘anah’ carries the meaning of ‘forced’ sex, violent sexual intercourse and rape. As we have said in previous articles, the GNT have given the true accurate account what happened to the slave-women in Deuteronomy 21:14, that they were forced to sleep with the soldiers i.e., rape.

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