“Those Who Emigrated For The Cause Of Allah And Then Were Killed…” – Surah 22:58

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Analysing Verses

22:58 And those who emigrated for the cause of Allah and then were killed or died – Allah will surely provide for them a good provision. And indeed, it is Allah who is the best of providers.

22:60 That [is so]. And whoever responds [to injustice] with the equivalent of that with which he was harmed and then is tyrannized – Allah will surely aid him. Indeed, Allah is Pardoning and Forgiving.

22:58 – The verse speaks about those Muslims who emigrated in the cause of God to Madinah, 1400 years ago. It says if some of them were killed by the Quraysh, while on this journey, they will be rewarded with abundance in Heaven (Tafsir al-Jalalayn and Tanwîr al-Miqbas min Tafsir Ibn ‘Abbas).

22:60 – This verse mentions about an incident between the Muslims and the idolaters. The Sahabah (companions) of Prophet Muhammed encountered some of the Quraysh’s men. The Muslims urged Quraysh’s men that they do not want to fight, but they insisted in fighting against the Muslims. the disbelievers went with what they wanted, a fight ensued, and the Muslims fought back. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir and Tafsir al-Jalalayn)

Commentaries

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:

“‘That is so. And whoever has retaliated with the like of that which he was made to suffer….’ Muqatil bin Hayan and Ibn Jurayj mentioned that this was revealed about a skirmish in which the Companions encountered some of the idolators. The Muslims urged them not to fight during the Sacred Months, but the idolators insisted on fighting and initiated the aggression. So the Muslims fought them and Allah granted them victory.” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir on Surah 22:58-60 – Online Source)

 

Dr. Muhammad Asad:

“71 For this rendering of the phrase alladhi~na hajaru, see note 203 on 2:218. The subsequent mention of “those who strive in God’s cause, and then are slain or die” connects with the reference, in verses 39-40, to God’s permission to the believers to fight in defence of their faith and liberty. The extreme merit of the self-sacrifice involved is stressed in several Qur’anic passages, and particularly in 4:95-96; hence, it has also a bearing on the Day of Judgment spoken of in the preceding passage.
72 Or: “cause them to enter [upon their life after death] in a manner that will please them well” (cf. note 40 on the last clause of 4:31)- thus implying that by sacrificing their lives in God’s cause they will have obtained His forgiveness of whatever sins they may have previously committed.
73 Lit., “who has retaliated with the like of what he had been afflicted with” – i.e., has acted only in self-defence and done to his enemy no more than the enemy had done to him. (A similar phrase, relating to retaliation in argument, is found in 16:126 and explained in the corresponding note 150.)
74 While the opening sentence of this verse stresses the principle of self-defence as the only justification of war (cf. 2:190 and 192-193) – with the proviso that retaliation must not exceed the injury initially suffered – the concluding part of the verse implies that in case of repeated, unprovoked aggression the believers are allowed to wage an all-out war with a view to destroying completely the enemy’s military power. Since such an all-out war might seem to conflict with the principle of limited retaliation alluded to above, the Qur’an states that God absolves the believers of what otherwise might have been a sin, since it is they “against whom war is being wrongfully waged” (verse 39) by repeated acts of aggression.” [1]

 

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi:

103 As Allah is All-Knowing, He knows well those who left their homes for His sake and what reward they deserve. He is Clement, and forgives minor errors and weaknesses of the people; therefore these things will not hinder Him from rewarding the Believers for their services and sacrifices.
104 The preceding verses referred to those persecuted people who could not retaliate and here ‘the reference is to those victims of persecution who could fight back. (Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi – Tafhim al-Qur’an – The Meaning of the Qur’an – Online Source)

 

Malik Ghulam Farid

“1967. Those, who leave their hearths and homes and all that is dear to them for the sake of God and spend their lives in serving His cause and then die in harness, deserve to be classed with those who are actually slain fighting in the cause of God, for their sacrifice is as great as that of the actual martyrs; only. God in His infallible wisdom spares their lives. This is the significance of the words, or die.
1968. The verse has twofold significance. It holds out a promise of help to Muslims and also implies a prophecy about their eventual success. In the former sense it purports to say that the Muslims have been oppressed and transgressed against. They may retaliate but their retaliation should not exceed legitimate bounds.
The injury they should inflict on the enemy should be proportionate to the injury they receive. According to the second meaning, Muslims are told that they are going to have their enemies in their power and that they will be perfectly justified in inflicting as much injury on them as they had received from them, but it would be far better if in the hour of victory and success, by copying the Divine attributes of mercy and forgiveness, they pardoned and forgave them.” [2]

 

Maulana Muhammad Ali:

“58a. The mere occurrence of the word hajari (they fled) in this verse does not show that it was not revealed at Makkah, for a flight of the faithful to Abyssinia had taken place as early as the fifth year of the Call. Moreover, it should be noted that the Holy Prophet, with Ab∂ Bakr and ‘Ali, were the last men to depart from Makkah on the occasion of the second flight. A true and generous leader of men, he waited to see his faithful followers depart before he left, so that their safety might be ensured. There is no doubt that if he had left his followers behind him, they would have encountered a very hard fate at the hands of an exasperated enemy. The reference to some being slain after their fight is clearly prophetical. 60a. This verse permits the Muslims, who were long persecuted and oppressed, to punish their persecutors, but at the same time recommends pardon and forgiveness by referring to those two attributes of the Divine Being in the concluding words of the verse.” [3]

 

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References:

[1] The Message of The Quran translated and explained by Muhammad Asad, page 729 – 739
http://www.usc.edu/schools/college/crcc/private/cmje/religious_text/The_Message_of_The_Quran__by_Muhammad_Asad.pdf
[2] The Holy Qur’an – Arabic Text With English Translation & Short Commentary By Malik Ghulam Farid, Page 684 – 685
[3] The Holy Quran – Arabic Text with English Translation, Commentary and comprehensive Introduction [Year 2002 Edition] by Maulana Muhammad Ali, Page 679

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