بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
Kaleef K. Karim
This article is a response to hadith-rejecters’s claims made that the Prophet Muhammed (p) and his companions forbade the writing of Hadiths. I will respond to all the Hadiths they cite as evidence and refute them one by one, God willing. Note, I will highlight in red the Hadiths they use.
Refutation: Did the Prophet & his Companions Prohibit the writing of Hadiths? Part 2
Ibn Saeed Al-Khudry reported that the messenger of God had said,
(A) “Do not write anything from me EXCEPT QURAN. Anyone who wrote anything other than the Quran shall erase it.”
(B) Again, in the book “Taq-yeed Al-Ilm”, Abu Saeed Al-Khudry said, ” I asked the Messenger of God a permission to write his hadiths, but he refused to give me a permission.”
Response: The prophet (pbuh) forbade the writing of Hadith in the early stages of Islam, he feared that his sayings and the Quran would be mixed. Later on when the Quran was nearly completed he allowed for the Hadith to be written. The Full Hadith, what Sa’id Khudri narrated is below:
Abu Sa’id Khudri reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Do not take down anything from me, and he who took down anything from me except the Qur’an, he should efface that AND narrate from me, for there is no harm in it and he who attributed any falsehood to me−and Hammam said: I think he also said:” deliberately” −he should in fact find his abode in the Hell−Fire. (Source: Sahih Muslim Book 42, Number 7147)
At the start of the Hadith as you read , he forbade the writing, but after that if you read further on Muhammed (p) says: “and narrate from me, for there is no harm in it,” As you can see, narrating a Hadith from the prophet (p) was not a problem but writing it down was an issue at the start. Professor Muhammad Hashim Kamali says the following on the above narration:
It is generally known that the prophet (pbuh) discouraged documentation of his own sayings and the sunna at the early stages of his mission in order to preserve the purity of the Quran and prevent any possibility of confusion between Quran and his sunna.
During the latter part of his mission, that is, at the time when much of the Quranic text had already been documented, the prophet responded positively to the request of some of his companions to write his sayings. By the time when most of the of Quran was received, memorised and documented, the prophet permitted documentation of his Sunna and addressed the companions to “preserve knowledge through writing” (Source: Muhammad Hashim Kamali, A text book of Hadith studies page 22)
From Ibn Hanbal: Zayd Ibn Thabit (The Prophet’s closest revelation writer) visited the Khalifa Mu’aawiyah (more than 30 years after the Prophet’s death), and told him a story about the Prophet. Mu’aawiyah liked the story and ordered someone to write it down. But Zayd said. ” the messenger of God ordered us never to write anything of his hadith”.
Response: Zaid ibn thabit (ra) never met Muawiyah. Reasons are as follows:
Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) died in the year 633
Zaid Ibn Thabit died in the year 660
Muawiya came in power and became the leader in the year 661.
According to Quranist (hadith rejecters) this incident took place in the year 663. Question: How could Zaid have met Muawiya in the year 663 when Zaid died in the year 660? Please do enlighten me. The correct Hadith is below,
Narrated by Zaid ibn Thabit Al-Muttalib ibn Abdullah ibn Hantab said: Zaid ibn Thabit entered upon Mu’awiyah and asked him about a tradition. He ordered a man to write it. Zaid said: The Apostle of Allah (PBUH) ordered us not to write any of his traditions. So he erased it. (Source: Sunan of Abu-Dawud Hadith 3640)
As I have explained earlier there was a prohibition by the Prophet (p) but this was later revoked and he allowed it. Muawiya (RA) did get Hadith written down later as the prohibition was lifted by the prophet (p):
Narrated by Warrad (The clerk of Al-Mughira) Muawiya wrote to Al-Mughira: “Write to me what you have heard from Allah’s Apostle.” So he (Al-Mughira) wrote to him: Allah’s Prophet used to say at the end of each prayer: “La ilaha illalla-h wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul Mulku, wa lahul Hamdu wa hula ala kulli shai’in qadir. ‘Allahumma la mani’ a lima a’taita, wala mu’tiya lima mana’ta, wala yanfa’u dhuljadd minkal-jadd.” He also wrote to him that the Prophet used to forbid:
(1) Qil and Qal (idle useless talk or that you talk too much about others),
(2) Asking too many questions (in disputed religious matters);
(3) And wasting one’s wealth by extravagance;
(4) and to be undutiful to one’smother
(5) and to bury the daughters alive
(6) and to prevent your favors (benevolence) to others (i.e. not to pay the rights of others)
(7) And asking others for something (except when it is unavoidable).
(Source: Sahih Bukhari Hadith Volume 9. Number: 395)
Narrated by Warrad Muawiya wrote to Mughira, “Write to me what you heard the Prophet saying after his prayer.” So Al-Mughira dictated to me and said, “I heard the Prophet saying after the prayer, ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone Who has no partner. O Allah! No one can withhold what you give, and none can give what you withhold, and the fortune of a man of means is useless before you (i.e., only good deeds are of value). “(Source: Sahih Bukhari Hadith Volume 8. Number: 612)
The farewell Pilgrimage of the Prophet Muhammad is a cornerstone in the Muslim history. The Final Sermon given by the Prophet during this pilgrimage was witnessed by thousands of Muslims. There are however, THREE versions of this sermon in the Hadith books.
[A] 1- First version, ” I left for you what if you hold up to, you will never be misguided, the book of God and my Family.
[B] 2-Second version, “I left for you what if you hold up to, you will never be misguided, the book of God and my Sunnah” .
[C] 3- Third version, “I left for you what if you hold up to, you will never be misguided, the BOOK OF GOD.”
Response: Dealing with each claim one by one: A,B & C
[A] 1- First version, ” I left for you what if you hold up to, you will never be misguided, the book of God and my Family.
EXPLANATION OF [A]
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 6143 Narrated byJabir ibn Abdullah
Jabir saw Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) when performing the hajj seated on his she-camel al-Qaswa’ on the day of Arafah giving an address, and he heard him saying, “O people, I have left among you something of such a nature that if you adhere to it you will not go astray: Allah’s Book and
my close relatives who belong to my household.” Tirmidhi transmitted it.
Following Allah’s book and close relatives as close relatives used to follow sunnah of rasool Allah.
[B]2-Second version, “I left for you what if you hold up to, you will never be misguided, the book of God and my Sunnah” .
EXPLANATION OF B
Sunnah is in Hadith.
Muwatta Book 46, Number 46.1.3:
Yahya related to me from Malik that he heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I have left two matters with you. As long as you hold to them, you will not go the wrong way. They are the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Prophet.”
This is self explanatory.
[C]3- Third version, “I left for you what if you hold up to, you will never be misguided, the BOOK OF GOD.”
EXPLANATION OF C
Excerpt from last[Final] sermon,
Sahih Muslim Hadith 1885 Narrated by Jabir ibn Abdullah: I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the Day of Resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel. He (the narrator) said: He (the Holy Prophet) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people (said): “O Allah, be witness. O Allah be witness,” saying it thrice….
Implementing Quran itself requires Hadith as it carries to an extent laws and explanations of Quran. From prayer to capital punishments etc.
There are three versions ,this is where we require hadith exegesis, just like Quran explains some other parts of Quran.
Quran exegesis: EXAMPLE.
First version – 2:34 And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He demurred through pride, and so became a disbeliever. 35 And We said: O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and eat ye freely (of the fruits) thereof where ye will; but come not nigh this tree lest ye become wrongdoers.
Second version – 7:11 And We created you, then fashioned you, then told the angels: Fall ye prostrate before Adam! And they fell prostrate, all save Iblis (satan), who was not of those who make prostration.
12:He said: What hindered thee that thou didst not fall prostrate when I bade thee? (Iblis) said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me of fire while him Thou didst create of mud.
Third version: 20:116 When We said to the angels “Prostrate yourselves to Adam” they prostrated themselves but not Iblis: he refused. 117 Then We said: “O Adam! verily this is an enemy to thee and thy wife: so let him not get you both out of the Garden so that thou art landed in misery.
Common sense works very well here,
To simply explain, Satan was haughty, thinking he was better, thus he refused to prostrate, but the point here is to note that the way verses were revealed, each has its own sequence hence we require Quran exegesis.
The same law of exegesis [An explanation or critical(Characterized by careful evaluation and judgment) interpretation]
Follow Quran, its details of implementing are in sunnah [hadith] which was followed by the Prophet’s close relatives. Simple!
Allah says in the Holy Quran to pray and how we do so is found only in the Hadith, if we wish to take part in the pilgrimage known as Hajj; we find that the Qur’an is silent on details however, when we look at the hadith we find the details to be present here. Such as in the example concerning the amount of times one circumambulates around the Kaaba, though the Qur’an asks us to go around the Kaaba it doesn’t actually tell us how many times we should do this. Thus, we find this evidence and proof from the Hadith of the Prophet pbuh (Source: http://www.oocities.org/)
“Abu Bakr at one point was not sure whether to keep what he knows of hadiths or not. He had collected 500 hadiths during very long companionship of the prophet Muhammed, but he could not sleep the night until he burned them”.
Response: I don’t know why these liars are spreading propaganda and manipulating the Hadiths, making it out like the Leaders disliked the writing of Hadith . Let’s see why Abu Bakr burned his collection. Aisha (ra) says,
“My father (Abu Bakr) had a collection of 500 hadiths. One night I noticed that he was very restless. He was tossing about in the bed and could go to sleep. I got worried over this and inquired. “Are you suffering from any trouble or worried about anything?” But he did not speak and remained restless throughout the night. Next morning he called me and said, “bring the collection of hadith that I gave you to keep.” I brought the book and he set fire to it, till it was burnt. He said “The collection contained many hadiths that I had heard from other people. I thought if I died and left behind a Hadith accepted as authentic by me, but really not so, then I should have to answer for that.” (Source: Muhammed Zakaria, Faza’il-E-Amaal Chapter “stories of Sahabah”, page 140)
It was Abu Bakr’s (ra) zeal for knowledge that caused him to compile a book of 500 hundred hadiths. But it was due to his extreme cautiousness that he burnt the collection of Hadiths. Another thing to note is that if Abu Bakr wrote down hadiths and it was forbidden by the Prophet (p) at the time, would he really go against the Prophet’s commands and write it? The answer will be no! It is clear that the writing of hadith were not forbidden.
“I wanted to write the Sun’an, and I remembered a people who were before you, they wrote other books to follow and abandoned the book of God. And I will never, I swear, replace God’s book with anything” (Jami Al-Bayan 1/67)
(1) Response: Omar wrote a Book on Law to Shreih, he said:
“If there is anything in Allah’s Book, act according to it and do not let men deviate you from it and if there anything not mentioned in Allah’s book, look into the Sunna of the messenger of Allah (pbuh) and judge on it accordingly.”
(Source: Muhammed Redha “Al Farouk Omar Ibn Khattab, page 54)
(2) Did Umar forbid the writing?
As to Umar, we learn on the authority of Ma’mar ibn Rashid, that during his caliphate, Umar once consulted the companions of the Prophet on the subject of codifying the Hadith. Each person affirmed that such a codification should be done. Yet Umar continued to hesitate and pray to God for a whole month for guidance and enlightenment. Ultimately, he decided not to undertake the task, and said:
“Former peoples neglected the Divine Books and concentrated only on the conduct of the prophets; I do not want to set up the possibility of confusion between the Qur’an and the Prophet’s Hadith.”(Source: Dr. Hamidullah Introduction to Islam. Kuwait. 1977. Page 33)
The only reason he didn’t want to write as well as compile Hadith Books is because he didn’t want people to concentrate on the Hadith of the Prophets more and forget about the Book of Allah. But he never forbade people from writing them. He himself didn’t prefer it. There is not one Authentic Hadith in any book where he forbade people from writing Hadith down.
(3) Umar Ibn Al-Khattab wrote hadiths to the following people:
1- Utbah bin Farqad
2- Abu Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah
3- He presented Abdullah bin Omar hadiths that had to do with sadaqaat.
(Source: Dirasaat fil Hadith Al-Nabawi page 131 – 139)
More evidence that Umar followed and encouraged Hadiths, the Sunnah of the prophet (p). Umar Ibn Khattab delivered a sermon after the prophet’s death and said:
Ma’dan b. Talha reported: ‘Umar b. Khattab, delivered the Friday sermon and he made a mention of the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr. He (further) said: I saw in a dream that a cock pecked me twice, and I perceive that my death is near. Some people have suggested me to appoint my successor. And Allah would not destroy His religion. His caliphate and that with which He sent His Apostle (may peace be upon him) If death approaches me soon, the (issue) of Caliphate (would be decided) by the consent of these six men with whom the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) remained well pleased till his death. And I know fully well that some people would blame me that I killed with these very hands of mine some persons who apparently professed (Islam). And if they do this (blame me) they are the enemies of Allah, and are non-believers and have gone astray. And I leave not after me anything which to my mind seems more important than Kalala. And I never turned towards the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) (for guidance) more often than this Kalala, and he (the Prophet) was not annoyed with me on any other (issue) than this: (And he was so perturbed) that he struck his fingers on my chest and said: Does this verse. that is at the end of Surat al-Nisa’. which was revealed in the hot season not suffice you? And if I live longer I would decide this (problem so clearly) that one who reads the Qur’an, or one who does not read it, would be able to take (correct), decisions (under its light). He (‘Umar) further said: Allah! I call You witness on these Governors of lands, that I sent them to (the peoples of these lands) so that they should administer justice amongst them, teach them their religion and the Sunnah of the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him), and distribute amongst them the spoils of war and refer to me that which they find difficult to perform. O people. you eat ‘these two plants and these are onions and garlic. and I find them nothing but repugnant for I saw that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sensed the odour of these two from a person in a mosque, he was made to go to al-Baqi’. So he who eats it should (make its odour) die by cooking it well.
(Source: Sahih Muslim Book 4, Hadith number 1151)
(5) Umar Ibn Khattab said
“Try to understand whatever cases are referred to you where there is no evidence from the Quran or Sunnah, then try to make an analogy between the case that is before you and similar cases that are dealt with in Quran and Sunnah.” (Source: Ilam al-Muwaqqi’een, 1/85; Majallah al-Bulooth al-Ilmiyah, 7/287)
Rashad Khalifa Quotes:
The Prophet said, “Do not write down anything from me except the Quran.” [Ahmed, Vol. 1, Page 171, and Sahih Muslim]
This Hadith states that the Prophet maintained his anti-Hadith stand until death. [Ahmed, Vol. 1, Page 192]
(source: Rashad Khalifa “Quran: The Final Testament” appendix 12 page 598)
Response: I have already dealt with Sa’d Al Khudri narration. This response is to the narration concerning Rashad Khalifa quoted from Musnad Ibn Hanbal. I have done some research from Musnad Ibn Hanbal Hadith book and there is no such Hadith in there. But what I found is the following in the same pages:
Dujan Abul Ghusn, who was from Basra said: I came to Madinah and met aslam, the freed slave of Umar Ibn Khattab. I said: Tell me (a report) from Umar. He said : I cannot I am afraid that I will ADD or SUBTRACT something. If we said to UMAR, tell us SOMETHING FROM the MESSENGER of Allah. He (Umar) would say: “I Am AFRAID that I may ADD or SUBTRACT a letter. Messenger (pbuh) said Whoever tells a LIE about me will be in hell. (Source: Musnad Ibn Hanbal volume 1. page 193, number 326)
It was narrated that Abu Firas said Umar Ibn Khattab gave a speech amd said O people we used to know you when the prophet (pbuh) was among us and revelation was coming down to him: Allah would tell us about you. But now the prophet (pbuh) has passed away and revelation has ceased, and now the way to JUDGE you is this: whoever among you shows us good conduct, we will think well of him and love him: whoever among you shows us bad conduct we will think badly of him and hate him for that and whatever is in your hearts is between you and your Lord. There was a time when I used to think that whoever learned the Quran seeking thereby Allah and (the reward that) is with him, would be rewarded in the hereafter, but some men learned Quran seeking that which is with people. So seek Allah by learning Quran and by your good deeds. By Allah, I do not send them my workers to strike you or seize your wealth: RATHER I SEND THEM TO YOU TO TEACH YOU YOUR RELIGION AND SUNNAH….. (Source: Musnad Ibn Hanbal volume 1 page 173, number 286)
I conclude by that the Prophet Muhammed (p) did indeed allow Hadith to be written down. In Early Islam, Prophet Muhammed (p) did prohibit the writing of Hadith, but later on he allowed it to be written down. Even the narrations Hadith-rejecters provided as evidence that Prophet Muhammed discouraged Ahadith, it backfired on them when we read that Prophet encouraged its Companions to narrate his sayings to other people. Also, the narrations used by Quranists to say that the Companions discouraged Hadith of Prophet Muhammed (p), when I examined the Hadiths mentioned, it was twisted , manipulated and referenced things which did not exist. Prophet Muhammed (p) and his Companions did certainly allow Hadith to be written down, with the evidences shown above. This section (below) is about the early Hadith books that were written before Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah…
Mufti (Scholar) Abdul-Jaleel Qaasimi
THE STAGES OF THE COMPILATION OF AHAADITH
The Ahaadith were not compiled and codified in the time of the Prophet (PBUH) like it is today. There existed no real need for this as the companions memorised virtually every word spoken by the Prophet (PBUH). Allah Ta’ala had granted them such perfect and excellent memories that once they heard anything they used to remember it throughout their lives. The remembering of lengthy poems and the ancestral details of horses and camels bears testimony to this fact. Once Ibn Umar (RA) repeated Ahaadith to a bedouin, in order for him to memorize it well. The bedouin remarked, “Enough, once is sufficient I shall not forget it till death. I have performed 60 pilgrimages on 60 camels and I know perfectly well which Hajj I performed on which camel.”
This was the condition of the bedouins in ordinary matters and mundane talk. How much more did they preserve the speech of prophet (PBUH). Not only his speech but every action, notion, indication, approval, disapproval and deed of Prophet (PBUH) was preserved by them. They valued these more than their lives and wealth. They used to alternate with their business partners in sitting in the gathering of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Each partner used to narrate to his companion what he had heard the Prophet ( PBUH) say. Extreme measures were taken to safeguard the words of the Prophet (PBUH). Many of them were not literate (did not know how to write). However, the companions who knew how to write used to record and write down the Ahaadith as well. The Ahaadith were recorded in the presence of the Prophet (PBUH).
THE THREE METHODS OF PRESERVING AND SAFEGUARDING THE HADITH
We hereby detail all the methods utilised to preserve Ahaadith from the prophetic era upto this day. There is consensus that recording and writing was not the only method of safeguarding Ahaadith. There existed other reliable methods as well:
MEMORISING THE AHAADITH
The most reliable method adopted by the Sahaaba (RA) to safeguard the Ahaadith was through memory.
PRESERVATION THROUGH ACTION AND PRACTICE
This was another reliable means of protecting and safeguarding the Ahaadith. The companions (RA) used to transform the words of Prophet (PBUH) into action immediately and every companion used to practice upon the Hadith. This resulted in every word of Prophet (PBUH) becoming a practical action and deed, which was thoroughly remembered and preserved. Therefore, many traditions contact the phrases: “This is how I saw the Prophet (PBUH) carry out and perform this.”
This practical method was very effective in preserving the Ahaadith. It is continuing upto this day.
WRITING AND RECORDING THE HADITH
This method was also customary in the prophetic era. This procedure had passed through four stages (phases):
(A) Recording of Ahaadith without any arrangement or sequence
(B) Arranging the Ahaadith relating to certain subject (topic) or subjects into one small book
(C) Accumulating of various Ahaadith into one book.
(D) Compiling Ahaadith and codifying.
The first two types of compiling were extensively practised during the time of the Prophet (PBUH) and the companions (RA). The following details will suffice for the Rejectors of Hadith.
(1) Imam Tirmidhi has included a special chapter in the Chapter of Knowledge titled, The Chapter of the Permissibility of Recording Hadith – Abu Hurrairah (RA) reports that the Prophet indicated to a certain Ansari companion whose memory was weak, to write. One Ansari companion (RA) used to sit by Prophet (PBUH) and listen to the Hadith; it used to please him, but he was unable to memorise it. He complained to the Prophet (PBUH) who replied, “Seek assistance with your right hand and he indicated towards writing with his hand” (Jamia Tirmizi vol. 2 pg. 107).
(2) In a tradition recorded in Mustadrak-e-Haakim, Amr bin Aas (R.A.) reports, “I used to record everything the Prophet (PBUH) used to say with an incitation of (accumility) and gathering same. The Quraish stopped me saying: ‘Do you write everything the Prophet (PBUH) says? He is a human being, he speaks in anger and happiness.’ I abstained from writing. I mentioned this to the Prophet (PBUH) and he indicated towards his tongue and said, ‘Write! By Him in whose hand is my life. Nothing except the truth comes out of it.’ (Mustadrak Vol.1 Page 104)
(3) In one Hadith recorded in Mustadrak-e-Haakim, an explicit and clear order of writing is given. The words are “Tie down knowledge”, the Companion enquired, “What is tying down knowledge?” The Prophet (PBUH) replied, “It’s writing.” (Mustadrak vol. 1 pg. 106)
(4) The incident of Abu Shah Yemani is famous. Once the Prophet (PBUH) mentioned an incident and upon the request of Abu Shah the Prophet (PBUH) instructed the Companion to write for Abu Shah – this Hadith is recorded in Jame Tirmidhi vol. 2 pg. 107 and Bukhari vol. 1 pg. 23
There are numerous traditions indicating the instruction of writing Ahaadith. Therefore, many Sahaaba recorded ahaadith in the Prophetic era. References are many of such collections and compilations:
(1) THE SAHIFA (COLLECTION) OF ABDULLAH IBN AMR (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) Abu Hurayrah (RA) is the greatest narrator of Hadith. Despite this he says, “No person has learnt more Hadith than me. However, Abdullah bin Amr (RA) used to write the Hadith and I should not write.” This is clear evidence that Hadith used to be written in that era. Abdullah bin Amr (RA) possessed a collection that exceeded one thousand Ahaadith. Ibnr-Rushd has mentioned in his Kitaab Asadul Ghaaba (vol. 3 pg. 233) that, this collection was named As-saadiqah.
(2) THE SAHIFA (COLLECTION OF ALI (RA)
Imam Bukhari (RA) has mentioned in this Sahifa in the chapter of “Ilm” (vol. 1 pg. 21) and he has mentioned it in four places. The narrator Abu Juhaifa reports that, “I enquired from Ali (R.A.), do you possess a book?” He replied: “No, except the Book of Allah or the understanding granted to a Muslim or what is in this Sahifa.” I asked him, “What is in this Sahifa?” He replied, “Orders relating to ‘Diyat’ (penalty or murder) – the freeing of prisoners and no Muslim will be killed in lieu of a kafir.”
This Sahifa contained orders regarding, murder, compensations, capital punishments, details of Zakat and matters relating to non-Muslim citizens in an Islamic State.
(3) KITABUS – SAQAH
This collection was personally dictated by the Prophet (PBUH). It contained details regarding Zakat, Ushar etc. According to some reports it seems as though this was written for the Zakat collectors. However, the Prophet (PBUH) left this world before it was sent to them. This kitaab (book) remained with Abu Bakr and Umar (R.A.). Eventually Umar bin Abdul Aziz memorized it and thereafter Ibn Shihaab Zohri memorised it.
(4) SAHIFA IBN ABBAS (R.A.)
Ibn Saad (R.A.) mentions in his kitaab “Tabaqaat” that the slave of Ibn Abbas (R.A.) said, “He found a large collection of the kitaabs of Ibn Abbas equal to a camel-load.”
(5) SAHIFA JAABIR IBN ABDULLAH (Radhiallaahu Ánhu)
Imam Muslim has reported that Jaabir (RA) had compiled a book on Hajj. Imam Bukhari mentioned this is his Taarikh-e-Kabeer vol. 7 pg. 186) – Hadhrat Qataaqda bin De’aama as-Sodusi had memorised this Sahifa.
(6) SAHIFA SAMURA IBN JUNDOB (RA)
Hafiz ibn Hajar (RA) reports that Hadhrat Samoora (RA) has narrated a big (volume) chapter from his father. Imam Muhammad ibn Sireen (RA) reports that the Kitaab which Samoora has written for his children contains great knowledge.
(7) SAHIFA SAAD IBN UBADA
Ibn Saad reports in Tabaqaat that Saad (RA) had a collection of Ahaadith.
(8) SAHIFA ABU HURAYRA (RA)
Imam Hakim mentions in Mustadrak that once Hassan ibn Umar narrated a Hadith to Abu Hurayra. Abu Hurayra denied the Hadith. Hadhrat Hassan told him, “I have narrated this Hadith from you”. He replied, “If I have narrated it, it will definitely be written down.”
He had written down all his Hadith in the end.
(9) SAHIFA IBN MAS’OOD
Hafiz ibn Abdul-Barr (RA) mentions in his Kitaab, Jaame Bayaan nul-Ilm that ibn Mas’ood (RA) took out one Kitaab and swore an oath that it was compiled by him.
(10) SAHIFA AMR IBN HAZAM (RA)
When the Prophet (PBUH) appointed ibn Hazam as a governor of Najran, he gave him a Sahifa which was written by Ubayy bin Ka’ab. It contained orders regarding cleanliness, purification, Salaat, Hajj, Umra, Jihaad, etc.
(11) SAHIFA IBN MUBAARAK
Sa’eed ibn Hilaal says, “When we frequented Hadhrat Anas bin Malik he took out a volume and said, ‘I heard these from the Prophet (PBUH). I have written it and preserved it.'” (Mustadrak Hakim vol. 3 pg. 54)
There are many other small Sahifas which the Prophet (PBUH) sent to the kings; and, other compilations which have been omitted for the sake of brevity.
THE ERA OF UMAR BIN ABDUL AZIZ
Though the writing of the Ahaadith had commenced it was not done in an arranged manner, i.e. it was compiled and codified. Due to the pre-occupations of the Khulafaa-e-Raashideen (Muslim Leaders) with the compilation of the Noble Qurãn and other important matters, it was not possible for them to accomplish this task.
However, when the politicians at the time of Ali (R.A.) began to fabricate false Ahaadith Ali became concerned about safeguarding the authentic Ahaadith. He used to stand on the mimbar and announce the authentic Ahaadith to the people. This continued till the period of Umar bin Abdul Aziz (R.A.) who became the khalifa (Leader) after the demise of Sulayman bin Abdul Malik. His khilafat lasted only for 2 years. After accepting khilafat, he wrote to the judge of Madinah, Abubakr bin Hazm saying, “Whatever you find from the Ahaadith of the Prophet (PBUH), write it down. I fear the loss of knowledge and the passing away of the Ulema.” (Bukhari vol.1 page 20)
Hafiz Ibn Hajar mentions that this letter was addressed to all the Judges of every province. A large collection of Ahaadith were compiled in this manner in the first century.
(1) Hafiz Ibn Abdul Bar has written that Qazi Abu Bakr has compiled many books on Ahaadith called Books of Abu Bakr.
(2) The Risala (Booker) of Saalim ibn Abdullah on Sadaqaat.
(3) The Registers of Zuhri – he says that whenever we were given any command we compiled a brief register. He had played a great role in the compilation of Hadith.
THE COMPILATIONS OF THE SECOND CENTURY
Various collections of Hadith are found in this era like Jame Ma’moon bin Raashid, Jame Sufyaan Sowri, As-Sunem of Ibn Juray – Sunan Abul Waleed – Muwatta Imam Malik.
From the above discussion we reach the following conclusion that:
(1) The recording and writing of hadith had began from the time of the Prophet (PBUH);
(2) Compiling had began in the time of the Sahaba (R.A.) especially in the time of Ali (R.A.);
(3) Umar bin Abdul Aziz strived in this matter and a large collection was accumulated during his period;
(4) Many books were compiled in the first century;
(5) The objections and arguments of the Rejectors of hadith are fully answered;
(6) The fitnah of Rejection in hadith is old and detrimental to religion, in fact rejecting the Quran;
(7) The Ahaadith are a complementary and explanation of the Quran;
(8) The safeguarding of the Quran entails the safeguarding of the Hadith.
And Allah Ta’ala knows best.
(Source: Mufti Abdul-Jaleel Qaasimi “A Historical Background of the Refutation of the Hadith and the Authenticity of its Compilation http://www.beautifulislam.net/hadith/refuting_hadith.htm)